|Est. World Population:||Unknown|
|CITES Status:||NOT LISTED|
|IUCN Status:||NOT LISTED|
|U.S. ESA Status:||NOT LISTED|
|Body Length:||1 ¾ - 2 &frac|
|Shoulder Height:||½ - ¾|
|Weight:||2 - 3 Ounces|
|Jumping Ability:||Unknown (Horizontal)|
|Life Span:||Unknown in the Wild|
|Life Span:||Unknown in Captivity|
|Sexual Maturity:||Unknown (Females)|
|Sexual Maturity:||Unknown (Males)|
|Clutch Size:||200 - 2500|
|Incubation Period:||2 - 14 days|
The parotid glands are distinct. No boss in between the eyes. On the back of the toad there are two yellowish lines, one that starts at each eye, that run down the back. The formation of the two lines may resemble that of a distorted hourglass. Most of the species display an additional light line on each side of the body. The ground color of the toad is some sort of brown color, although there have been instances of species that are uniformly black or gray (Conant & Collins, 1998).
Biomes: freshwater lake, freshwater rivers
The beginning of the breeding season is marked by the occurrence of a torrential rainstorm. These rains produce large areas of surface water (temporary water) that is ideal for this species. Another factor that influences the beginning of the breeding season is when males position themselves near the surface water and begin to sing. The breeding behavior of the Eastern Spadefoot is described as an explosive breeder, meaning that the breeding season is quick, usually because of limiting factors that regulate breeding success (Punoz, 1992).
Once the males have reached the desired shallow pond, they begin to sing and attract receptive females. The number of males may reach up into the hundreds, all calling with their somewhat nasal voice. The voice has been described as an explosive 'waank' or 'waagh" in 3-4 second intervals (Dundee & Rossman, 1989). Others describe the call, which resembles a young crow (Conant & Collins, 1998).
The fertilized mother produces eggs and the number of eggs are around 200 or more. The eggs are laid in strings amid vegetation. Unlike the true toads (Bufo) these eggs lack the encased tubular gelatinous covering. Development of the eggs is rapid because the breeding location has a rapid loss of water and the eggs must develop before the water disappears. The larval period may be as quick as 12 days and the maximum period may be up to 40 days.
The tadpoles of Scaphiopus holbrooki can be identified because spadefoots are the only species having a medial anus and a mouth that is not laterally infolded. The appearance of the tadpoles are flattened (meaning that the posterior end is wider than the anterior), bronze in color, and can reach a length of 28-mm (Dundee & Rossman, 1989).